History Demographics and Culture of Hong Kong Demographics Census Healthcare Hong Kong People Hong Kong Resident Hong Kong Identity Card Languages Religion Right to abode Culture Cinema Cuisine Holidays Shopping Manhua Music Opera Sport Other Hong Kong topics Economy Education Geography History Politics Hong Kong Portal This box: viewtalkedit Hong Kong has a long history of utilising identity documents, ranging from the earliest system, a manually-filled paper document, to the smart card introduced on 23 June 2003. The use of identity documents in Hong Kong’s has not, from their original issue to the present day, aroused much controversy. (On the other hand, the British national identity card, utilising similar technology to the smart card HKID, met heavy criticism.) Before the Chinese Communists took over mainland China in 1949, people could move freely into and out of Hong Kong (then a British colony), and China (then Republic of China). Hong Kong residents who held Republic of China citizenship were not registered. In 1949, when the Government of the Republic of China retreated to Taiwan and the Communists established People’s Republic of China on the mainland, the Hong Kong Government began to register Hong Kong residents in order to issue compulsory identity documents. These measures were put into practice in order to halt the large influx of refugees from Communist China and control the border with mainland China. This exercise was completed in 1951. Although registration was compulsory for all residents, people were not required to carry their documents with them at all times when going into public. Beginning on 1 June 1960, the government introduced the second generation of ID cards. These bore the holder’s fingerprint and photograph, and an official stamp. The information was typed, and the card was laminated. Males had a blue card and females had a red card. The format of card was replaced once more in November 1973, this time with a card which bore the holder’s photograph but no fingerprint. The colour of the stamp identified and differentiated permanent residents (black) from non-permanent ones (green). Because of this, new immigrants became known as “green stamp tourists” (Chinese: ). From 24 October 1980, it became compulsory to carry one’s identity card when in public areas and to produce it when requested by a police or immigration officer. This law was passed in order to halt the waves of illegal immigrants arriving in the city. The government adopted a policy of deporting illegal immigrants to China within three days if they could not produce a valid ID card. From March 1983, a new generation of identity cards was introduced, using a digital process in order to reduce forgery. This also simplified border controls. On 1 June 1987, the Immigration Department produced cards without the right-of-abode, which would last through the handover on 1 July 1997. In 2003, the government began replacing the cards with smart IDs in stages. Classes of HKID Two classes of Hong Kong Identity Cards exist: Hong Kong Permanent Identity Card – states that the holder has the right of abode in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Hong Kong Identity Card – which does not state that right. In addition, these are further divided into “child” (below age 11; see note below), “youth” (from age 11 up until 18), and “adult” (issued from age 18 onwards). (note: it is not compulsory to obtain a “child” identity card, and one is normally issued when a child obtains a HKSAR passport. A “child” identity card must be replaced by a “youth” identity card when the holder reaches age 11.) Thus, there are six types of ID cards in total. Permanent HKID and Right of Abode Paper Hong Kong Permanent Identity Card Permanent HKID holders have the Right of Abode (Chinese: ) in Hong Kong. Under the Basic Law of Hong Kong, a person who belongs to one of the following categories is a permanent resident of the HKSAR with right of abode privileges: (a) Chinese citizen born in Hong Kong before or after the establishment of the HKSAR (b) Chinese citizen who has ordinarily resided in Hong Kong for a continuous period of not less than seven years before or after the establishment of the HKSAR. (c) Person of Chinese nationality born outside Hong Kong before or after the establishment of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region to a parent who, at the time of birth of that person, was a Chinese citizen falling within category (a) or (b). (d) Person not of Chinese nationality who has entered Hong Kong with a valid travel document, has ordinarily resided in Hong Kong for a continuous period of not less than seven years and has taken Hong Kong as his place of permanent residence before or after the establishment of the HKSAR. (e) Person under 21 years of age born in Hong Kong to a parent who is a permanent resident of the HKSAR in category (d) before or after the establishment of the HKSAR if at the time of his birth or at any later time before he attains 21 years of age, one of his parents has the ROA in Hong Kong. (f) Person other than those residents in categories (a) to (e), who, before the establishment of the HKSAR, had the ROA in Hong Kong only. Paper versions of the Hong Kong Identity card (such as the one on the right) are issued by the Registration of Persons Office for temporary use until a smart card can be manufactured. This process requires two weeks, and the smart card must be collected within six weeks. Hong Kong Identity Card The following conditions are required to receive a non-permanent Hong Kong Identity Card: (to be expanded) Right to Land – free from any condition of stay (including a limit of stay) or removal from HKSAR (and does not posssess the right of abode) Anyone 11 years of age or above who enters and is permitted to stay in Hong Kong for more than 180 days Eligibility Residents of Hong Kong are required to obtain an HKID card at the age of 11. Hong Kong residents age 18 or over are required to carry legal identification with them at all times (that is, the HKID card). Bearers of a “youth” HKID card must switch to an “adult” HKID within 30 days after their 18th birthday. The “youth” card will be invalid as re-entry travel document 30 days after the 18th birthday. If used, the “youth” HKID card will be seized by the Immigration Department. Immigration officials will issue a receipt which can be used as a temporary identity document until the “adult” HKID card is ready. However, this receipt cannot be used as a travel document, and if the card holder needs to travel outside Hong Kong during this period, they need to get a re-entry permit (for travels to Macau and Mainland China), or passport in order to pass through the immigration checkpoint. The HKID for children under the age of 11 are not required to have a photo and cannot be used as a travel document. A Hong Kong Re-entry Permit is issued in its place. HKID number HKID cards contain the bearer’s HKID number, of which the standard format is X123456(A). X represents any letter of the alphabet, or the letter U followed by any letter of the alphabet (UH and UY are common but others exist. These are usually given to mothers who have just given birth, but may or may not have right of abode in Hong Kong, and are therefore temporary until a proper number can be established, and used most commonly in hospitals. Also, the babies cannot hold HKIDs but hospital filing systems are based on ID number, hence the need to assign temporary ones). The numerals may represent any Arabic number. A is the check digit, which has 11 possible values from 0 to 9 and A. There are 26 million possible card numbers using only one letter, and while the numbers of those who have died are not reassigned, there are still sufficient numbers in the near future. Calculating HKID Check Digit Each leading alphabet of the HKID corresponds to a number like so: A,L,W: 1 B,M,X: 2 C,N,Y: 3 D,O,Z: 4 E,P : 5 F,Q : 6 G,R : 7 H,S : 8 I,T : 9 J,U : 10 K,V : 11 Given X123456, Replace the first character by its corresponding number (2123456). To the entire HKID, multiply that digit by (9-position). X has position 8. Add all those numbers up and find the modulus of this number when divided by 11. The check digit is 11 minus the above number. If it happens to be 10, it will be replaced by “X”. Meanings of the symbols on the face of a smart identity card First generation of computerised HKID Second generation of computerised HKID Name in Chinese (if any) Name in English Name in Chinese Commercial Code (if any) Sex Date of birth Symbols Holder’s digital image Month and year of first registration Date of registration Identity card number (Note) Symbol Description *** the holder is of the age of 18 or over and is eligible for a Hong Kong Re-entry Permit. * the holder is between the age of 11 and 17 and is eligible for a Hong Kong Re-entry Permit. A the holder has the right of abode in the HKSAR. C the holder’s stay in the HKSAR is limited by the Director of Immigration at the time of his registration of the card. R the holder has a right to land in the HKSAR. U the holder’s stay in the HKSAR is not limited by the Director of Immigration at the time of his registration of the card. Z the holder’s place of birth reported is Hong Kong. X the holder’s place of birth reported is the Mainland. W the holder’s place of birth reported is the region of Macau. O the holder’s place of birth reported is in other countries. B the holder’s reported date of birth or place of birth has been changed since his/ her first registration. N the holder’s reported name has been changed since his/ her first registration. Note: The check digit in brackets is not part of the identity card number. It is only for facilitating computer data processing. Hong Kong Smart Identity Cards On 23 June 2003, anyone who had lost or damaged a card, who had just reached 11 and was about to apply for their first card, who had just reached 18 and was about to change their card, or adults who were about to apply for their first card, was issued with a smart ID instead of the old card. Between August 2003 to 2007, all Hong Kong ID cards were replaced, in order of the holder’s birth year, starting with 1960 and later, then earlier. On 23 June 2003, the Immigration Department of Hong Kong began issuing a new revised Smart Identity card. The new cards contain an embedded microchip, which stores the bearer’s information electronically. Previous HKIDs remain valid until the Executive Council, through the Secretary for Security, declares them invalid. Any new cards issued (for example, on loss, renewal or new application) were of the new Smart Identity Card type. In addition, existing holders of HKID documents were called to apply to have their old-style HKID documents replaced by the new cards. This eligibility was offered to existing HKID holders based their date of birth on a rolling basis in order to prevent the volume of applications exceeding the pace at which the government could issue these revised documents. The Government of Hong Kong has been gradually moving the window of applicants eligible for replacement. Persons born in 1993 to 1996 or 1986 to 1989 should have applied/apply for smart identity cards at the Registration of Persons Offices when they attain the age of 11 or 18. The introduction of Smart Identity Cards was, amongst other things, motivated partially by the influx of counterfeit HKID documents being produced in China, and partially in order to speed up processing at Hong Kong’s Immigration checkpoints, especially into Shenzhen, China, where in 2002, an estimated 7,200 Hong Kong residents commuted daily to Shenzhen for work, and 2,200 students from Shenzhen commuted to school in Hong Kong. See also Identity document History of Hong Kong MyKad, Malaysia’s ID card National identification number National Registration Identity Card, Singapore’s ID card Resident Identity Card (Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: Jmn Shnfnzhng, used in the People’s Republic of China) National Identification Card (Republic of China) (traditionalChinese: , used in the ROC) Right of abode issue, Hong Kong Hongkonger References ^ a b Yearbook.gov.hk. “Yearbook.gov.hk.” Hong Kong 2006. Retrieved on 2008-02-07. ^ a b c d Immd.gov.hk. “immd.gov.hk.” The government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. Retrieved on 2008-02-07. ^ a b c d e Immd.gov.hk. “immd.gov.hk.” Registration of persons, proof of identity. Retrieved on 2008-02-07. ^ Immigration Ordinance (Chapter 115) Section 17C, Hong Kong Law ^ http://www.kgv.net/ict-ks4/TheoryTerm2/HKCheckDigit.htm ^ Smartid.gov. “Smartid.gov.” ‘Smart ID FAQ. Retrieved on 2008-02-07. External links Hong Kong Immigration Department’s page on Hong Kong Identity Cards Who can enjoy the Right of Abode in the HKSAR? Hong Kong Smart ID card Information Centre Hong Kong ID cards in different phases Hong Kong Capital Investment Entrant Scheme vde Travel Documents Used in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Passport Hong Kong Special Administrative Region passport Other Documents issued by Hong Kong Government Hong Kong Identity Card Document of Identity Hong Kong Re-entry Permit Other Documents used by Hong Kong Residents Home Return Permit One-way Permit Exit & Entry Permit (Republic of China) British National (Overseas) passport British Citizen passport (British Nationality Selection Scheme) Defunct Documents Hong Kong Certificate of Identity British Dependent Territories Citizen passport vde National Identity cards By continent Africa Algeria Botswana Burundi Cameroon Cape Verde DR Congo Rep. Congo Djibouti Egypt7 Eritrea Ethiopia Gabon Ghana Ivory Coast Kenya Libya Madagascar Mauritius Morocco Namibia Nigeria Rwanda Seychelles South Africa Sudan Swaziland Tanzania Tunisia Asia Abkhazia9 Afghanistan Armenia Azerbaijan Bahrain Bangladesh Brunei Burma People’s Republic of China (Hong Kong SAR Macau SAR) Republic of China (Taiwan)8 Cyprus2 Georgia India Indonesia Iran Iraq Israel Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kuwait North Korea South Korea Kyrgyzstan Lebanon Malaysia Maldives Mongolia Nepal Oman Pakistan Philippines Qatar Saudi Arabia Singapore Syria Thailand Turkey1 Turkmenistan United Arab Emirates Vietnam Yemen Oceania Australia New Zealand Papua New Guinea Europe Albania Andorra Austria Belarus Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Czech Republic Denmark3 Estonia Finland France3 Germany Gibraltar Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Kosovo5 Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia4 Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands3 Norway3 Poland Portugal3 Romania Russia San Marino Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain3 Sweden Switzerland Ukraine United Kingdom3 Vatican City North America Antigua and Barbuda Bahamas Barbados Belize Canada Costa Rica Cuba Dominica Dominican Republic El Salvador Grenada Guatemala Haiti Honduras Jamaica Mexico Nicaragua Panama Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Trinidad and Tobago United States6 South America Argentina Bolivia Brazil Chile Colombia Ecuador Guyana Paraguay Peru Suriname Uruguay Venezuela International organizations Andean Community of Nations Caribbean Community European Union United Nations Laissez-Passer By type Biometric Internal Machine-readable Other Alien Camouflage Fake Hajj Laissez-passer Pet World Defunct British Indian Empire Czechoslovakia East Germany League of Nations refugee Soviet Union Yugoslavia Notes 1Has part of its territory in Europe. 2Entirely in West Asia but having socio-political connections with Europe. 3Has dependencies or similar territories outside Europe. 4Name disputed by Greece; see Macedonia naming dispute. 5Declared independence from Serbia on February 17, 2008 and is recognised by 65 United Nations member states. 6Has part of its territory outside North America. 7Has part of its territory outside Africa. 8The Republic of China (Taiwan) is not officially recognized by the United Nations but maintains diplomatic relations with 23 UN member states. 9Declared independence from Georgia and is recognised by 2 United Nations member states. 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